Brain concussion is a damaging injury to the brain that alters your brain activity. Side effects are sometimes short-lived but can consist of headaches and difficulty with attention, concentration, composure, and agility.

Trauma mostly arises from a hard hit to the brain. Aggressive shaking of the head and upper body can also lead to concussions. A few concussions cause you to lose focus, but most don’t.

The most frequent cause of concussion is falling. Concussions are also typical when you’re playing a contact sport like soccer or football. Generally, the majority of individuals bounce back ultimately from a concussion.


  • Primary brain injury involves unexpected and severe brain damage that is believed almost comprehensive at the time of impact. This happens during a car crash, gunshot injury, or collapse.


  • Secondary brain injury pertains to the transitions that occur after the primary brain injury over some time (from hours to days). It involves a whole sequence of brain changes in the genetic, chemical, tissue, or blood vessel that leads to further brain tissue damage



A brain concussion’s manifestation may be slight, and may not occur instantly. Symptoms can take days, weeks, or even last longer. Headache, memory loss (amnesia) and disorientation are typical symptoms of a concussive traumatic brain injury. Typically, amnesia involves forgetting the incident, which caused the concussion. Sometimes amnesia has a part in forgetting the episode, which leads to the concussion.

Physical indications of a brain concussion may consist of:

  • tiredness
  • blurred eyesight
  • vomiting
  • migraine
  • ringing in the ears

Additional signs and indications of a concussion involve:

  • amnesia on the awful episode
  • disorientation or perception as if in a cloud
  • whirling sensation or “seeing stars.”

You may instantly have some concussions manifestations, and others can persist for days after the injury, such as:

  • sleep disorder
  • intolerance to light and sound that is loud 
  • focusing  and memory condition
  • problem with taste and smell
  • mental regulation problems and melancholia
  • irritation and other temperament changes


A concussion may not show signs and manifestations until hours or days after the injury. Your physician will check your signs and symptoms, analyze your medical record, and perform or recommend tests that include neurological examinations, cognitive testing, and imaging tests.


Neurological examination

After your specialist asks you about your trauma in detail, they will conduct a neurological test. This assessment involves checking on your:

  • endurance
  • responses
  • sense of balance
  • stamina and sensitivity
  • sense of hearing
  • eyesight

Cognitive testing

Your doctor may perform several tests during a neurological exam to determine your (cognitive) thinking skills. Testing can determine many factors including your:

  • recollection
  • capacity to remember information
  • alertness

Imaging tests

For individual patients with signs and symptoms such as extreme headaches, seizures, frequent vomiting, or having worse symptoms, brain imaging may be suggested. Brain imaging will assess if the injury is severe and has caused the skull to bleed or swell.



After a brain concussion, you may need to be confined overnight for observation.

When your doctor suggests you should be attended to at home, someone can stay with you and check on you for at least 24 hours to make sure your symptoms don’t worsen. Your caretaker will need to wake you up frequently to ensure you can wake up in the usual way.



Treatment for a brain concussion depends on how severe the symptoms are. You may need surgery or other medical measures if you have:

  • inflammation of the brain
  • bleeding in the brain
  • severe trauma to the brain

If the concussion causes headaches, the doctor can prescribe over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen ( Advil) or acetaminophen (Tylenol). Your physician will also advise you to take plenty of rest, stop sports and other stressful practices, stop driving a car, or riding a bike for 24 hours or even a few months, depending on your injury’s seriousness. Alcohol can delay recovery, so ask your physician if you should avoid drinking. If you should refrain from liquor, ask your doctor for how long.

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