Borreliosis, louse-borne produced by the spirochaete Borrelia recurrentis, a human-restricted infection spread by the human body louse Pediculus humanus humanus, is a vector-borne illness. Death happens in 10% to 40% of cases when adequate therapy is unavailable and in 2-5% of treated individuals. Meanwhile, antibiotic therapy for louse-borne relapsing fever may cause a potentially lethal Jarisch-Herxheimer outcome.
Furthermore, significant occurrences of louse-borne diseases have historically happened in Eurasia and Africa, although the illness is now most prevalent in northern Africa. The primary prevention of borreliosis, louse-borne is based on preventing body lice infection. Infestations of this kind are associated with inadequate personal cleanliness, overcrowding, and low socioeconomic levels.