BORRELIOSIS, LOUSE-BORNE

Borreliosis, louse-borne produced by the spirochaete Borrelia recurrentis, a human-restricted infection spread by the human body louse Pediculus humanus humanus, is a vector-borne illness. Death happens in 10% to 40% of cases when adequate therapy is unavailable and in 2-5% of treated individuals. Meanwhile, antibiotic therapy for louse-borne relapsing fever may cause a potentially lethal Jarisch-Herxheimer outcome.

Furthermore, significant occurrences of louse-borne diseases have historically happened in Eurasia and Africa, although the illness is now most prevalent in northern Africa. The primary prevention of borreliosis, louse-borne is based on preventing body lice infection. Infestations of this kind are associated with inadequate personal cleanliness, overcrowding, and low socioeconomic levels.

SYMPTOMS

The signs and symptoms of borreliosis, louse-borne are linked to the flow of bacteria in the blood. Symptoms frequently appear suddenly. Among the symptoms are:

  • Non-productive cough
  • Mild tachypnea
  • Tachycardia
  • Erythematous rash
  • Scattered petechiae
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Splenomegaly
  • Meningism
  • HeadacheSweats
  • Chill
  • General Malaise
  • High fever

DIAGNOSIS

Directly detecting spirochaetes in the blood is the preferred diagnostic method for borreliosis, louse-borne.

  • Borrelia is a spirochaete that may be seen on stained blood films, particularly during the symptomatic fever phase. The bacteria were discovered by studying dyed blood films used to diagnose malaria. Bacteria may also be seen using phase contrast or dark-field microscopy.
  • Culture may exist in specialized mediums. Serology needs to be standardized and utilized for diagnosis.
  • Nucleic acid detection is done in research settings and may help with clinical diagnosis. The leucocyte level is low, and thrombocythaemia is common.

TREATMENT

In most instances of borreliosis, louse-borne, a single antibiotic dosage works successfully, although a longer treatment course is commonly used to reduce the likelihood of recurrence. The following antibiotics are recommended:

Antibiotic therapy for louse-borne infections may cause a potentially deadly Jarisch-Herxheimer response, necessitating vigilant evaluation of patients on antibiotics. This reaction is usually common several hours following the first antibiotic treatment and occurs in two stages, which include:

Chill phase

  • Increasing metabolic rate
  • Confusion
  • Anxiety
  • High fever
  • Rigors

Flush phase

  • Myocardial dysfunction necessitating supportive treatment for fluid balance evaluation
  • Venous and arterial pressure
  • Significant decrease in arterial pressure
  • Drenching sweat
  • Decrease in temperature

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