Vibrio cholerae infection is a severe diarrheal illness caused by consuming tainted food or water. It is caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. A toxin generated by bacteria in the small intestine is responsible for the disease’s deadly effects. The toxin causes the body to expel large quantities of water, causing diarrhea, salt loss (electrolytes) and rapid fluid loss. Although not all persons who are exposed to cholera infection get sick, they do pass the bacteria in their feces, which may contaminate food and water sources.

Moreover, the bacterium that induces Vibrio cholera infection can be discovered in polluted public wells, raw, unpeeled vegetables and fruits, raw or undercooked seafood (particularly shellfish), and grain products that have been infected after cooking and left at room temperature for a few hours.


Even though the bacteria remain in their stools for 1-10 days after infection and are deposited back into the soil, the majority of persons infected with Vibrio cholerae do not show symptoms.

Most cholera infections with symptoms are characterized by moderate to severe diarrhea, which may be hard to distinguish from other issues. Some people develop more severe cholera symptoms, which often manifest within a few days following infection.

The following are symptoms of cholera infection:

  • Diarrhea
  • Dehydration
  • Vomiting and nausea 


A sample of your stool will be required by a medical professional to test for cholera. You will defecate into a collecting cup on a regular basis. A healthcare expert may inject a swab into your rectum on occasion.

The specimen is submitted to a laboratory, where specialists will analyze it under a microscope to see whether the bacteria V. cholera is present. Some cholera-endemic communities have access to a “dipstick” equipment that can swiftly examine a stool sample.


Prevention or reversing dehydration is the most crucial element of treating Vibrio cholerae infection. Anyone suffering from cholera should replace any lost fluids and salts as soon as possible. A medical professional may prescribe:

  • Intravenous fluids: In severe cases of dehydration, a healthcare provider may inject fluids directly into your veins using a needle.
  • Oral rehydration solution (ORS): You may be obliged to ingest vast quantities of a prepared salt, water, and sugar solution.

Other possible treatments include:

  • Zinc
  • Antibiotics

V. cholera bacteria typically leave the body within two weeks.

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