The signs and symptoms of varicella infection are used to make the diagnosis. Confirmation is provided by:
- an examination of the fluid contained within the vesicles
- scraping of non-cracked lesions or by blood for indications of an initial immune reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offers the best yield and may be used for non-skin samples such as:
- bronchoalveolar lavage sample
- cerebrospinal fluid
Fluorescent antibody testing has overtaken the Tzanck test. PCR yields more than culture vesicular fluid. Blood tests indicate acute infection (IgM), initial condition, and immunity (IgG). Ultrasound can be used to diagnose fetal varicella five weeks after maternal infection.
Primary disease is rarely addressed, allowing it to resolve results in life-long immunity to reinfection. On the other hand, Varicella-zoster virus infection is always a risk due to varicella problems and the numerous issues associated with recurring zoster. Varicella vaccine was approved for use in children aged 12-18 months, adolescents and adults who had never been infected in 1995.
For high-risk patients, the following medications are available to treat chickenpox and shingles:
The varicella-zoster virus infection immune globulin is extracted from people with high varicella immunity levels. It is used after exposure to treat those at high risk of problems.