URINARY TRACT INFECTION

  • Bacterial infections affecting the body’s urinary system — the bladder, kidneys, ureters, and urethra
  • Usually caused by E. Coli; May also be caused by staphylococcus, proteus, klebsiella, enterococcus, and pseudomonas
  • Pyelonephritis – when found in the Kidneys; Cystitis when found in the bladder
  • Commonly found in women. Presentation of the infection may vary between children and adults.

Risk factors:

  • Conditions that affect the bladder’s nerve supply such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal cord injuries
  • Elderly
  • Pregnant women
  • Tumors, kidney stones, an enlarged prostate or anything that causes an obstruction of the passage of urine
  • Use of contraceptive diaphragm or spermicide
  • Use of a urinary catheter
  • Men who engage in anal intercourse, who have HIV infection, or who have never been circumcised
  • Pain or burning during urination
  • Abdominal pain over bladder area
  • Frequent urination
  • Passage of small amounts of urine at a time
  • Sleep disturbances due to need urinate
  • Low back or flank pain
  • Cloudy urine
  • Bloody urine
  • Foul-smelling urine
  • Pain behind the scrotum
  • Painful ejaculation or, rarely, bloody semen

Presence of fever, chills or nausea suggest the presence of a more serious infection and should receive immediate medical attention. Pregnant women may not have any symptoms of infection, so their urine should be checked during their regular prenatal doctor visits.

DIAGNOSIS

  • Physician may do/request:
    • History & Physical Exam
      • Ask you questions about symptoms such as painful, frequent urination
    • Urinalysis
      • Test for presence of white blood cells, blood and bacteria
    • Urine Culture
    • Blood tests
    • Ultrasound test of the urinary tract
    • X-rays of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder
    • CT scans
    • Cystoscopy
    • Intravenous pyelogram

 

RECOMMENDED MEDICATIONS

  • Treament of UTI’s:
    • Antibiotics used for UTIs include sulfonamides with trimethoprim (such as Bactrim).
    • Phenazopyridine (such as Uristat) to treat the pain and burning of a UTI
    • Other nonprescription medicines for pain. These include acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (for example, Advil) and naproxen (for example, Aleve).
  • UTI Prevention:
    • Antibiotics, including sulfonamides with trimethoprim (such as Bactrim).
    • Methenamine (such as Hiprex).
    • Vaginal estrogen (such as Estrace, Estring, or Vagifem) for women who have been through menopause.

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