• Bacterial infections affecting the body’s urinary system — the bladder, kidneys, ureters, and urethra
  • Usually caused by E. Coli; May also be caused by staphylococcus, proteus, klebsiella, enterococcus, and pseudomonas
  • Pyelonephritis – when found in the Kidneys; Cystitis when found in the bladder
  • Commonly found in women. Presentation of the infection may vary between children and adults.

Risk factors:

  • Conditions that affect the bladder’s nerve supply such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal cord injuries
  • Elderly
  • Pregnant women
  • Tumors, kidney stones, an enlarged prostate or anything that causes an obstruction of the passage of urine
  • Use of contraceptive diaphragm or spermicide
  • Use of a urinary catheter
  • Men who engage in anal intercourse, who have HIV infection, or who have never been circumcised
  • Pain or burning during urination
  • Abdominal pain over bladder area
  • Frequent urination
  • Passage of small amounts of urine at a time
  • Sleep disturbances due to need urinate
  • Low back or flank pain
  • Cloudy urine
  • Bloody urine
  • Foul-smelling urine
  • Pain behind the scrotum
  • Painful ejaculation or, rarely, bloody semen

Presence of fever, chills or nausea suggest the presence of a more serious infection and should receive immediate medical attention. Pregnant women may not have any symptoms of infection, so their urine should be checked during their regular prenatal doctor visits.


  • Physician may do/request:
    • History & Physical Exam
      • Ask you questions about symptoms such as painful, frequent urination
    • Urinalysis
      • Test for presence of white blood cells, blood and bacteria
    • Urine Culture
    • Blood tests
    • Ultrasound test of the urinary tract
    • X-rays of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder
    • CT scans
    • Cystoscopy
    • Intravenous pyelogram



  • Treament of UTI’s:
    • Antibiotics used for UTIs include sulfonamides with trimethoprim (such as Bactrim).
    • Phenazopyridine (such as Uristat) to treat the pain and burning of a UTI
    • Other nonprescription medicines for pain. These include acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (for example, Advil) and naproxen (for example, Aleve).
  • UTI Prevention:
    • Antibiotics, including sulfonamides with trimethoprim (such as Bactrim).
    • Methenamine (such as Hiprex).
    • Vaginal estrogen (such as Estrace, Estring, or Vagifem) for women who have been through menopause.

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