PARAGONIMUS INFECTION

Paragonimus Infection is a lung fluke parasite (flatworm). When a person consumes contaminated crab or crayfish that is raw or undercooked, cases of disease from infection arise. Paragonimiasis is the name of the condition. A paragonimus infection may become deadly if the fluke enters the central nervous system and manifests as meningitis-like symptoms.

SYMPTOMS

Most paragonimus infection sufferers are asymptomatic; nevertheless, during fluke invasion and migration, diarrhea, stomach discomfort, fever, cough, urticaria, hepatosplenomegaly, pulmonary abnormalities, and eosinophilia may appear.

The lungs sustain the most significant damage during the chronic stage, while other organs may also be affected. The following are signs of lung infection that appear gradually:

  • persistent cough
  • a chest ache
  • hemoptysis
  • dyspnea

Within a year after the commencement of pulmonary illness, cerebral infections often appear as lesions that take up space. These include:

  • seizures
  • paresis
  • aphasia┬á
  • visual abnormalities

Infections often result in migratory allergic skin lesions but may also happen with other species. These lesions resemble those of cutaneous larva migrans.

DIAGNOSIS

Doctors will diagnose paragonimus infection through the following:

  • Study of sputum and excrement under a microscope
  • Serologic procedures to identify antibodies

Identification of the distinctive giant operculated eggs in sputum or stool aids in paragonimiasis diagnosis. Occasionally, fluid from the pleura or the peritoneum may contain eggs. Due to their irregular and sparse release, eggs may be challenging to locate. Techniques for concentration increase sensitivity.

The diagnosis of extrapulmonary paragonimiasis and light infections benefit from serologic assays to identify antibodies.

Chest x-rays and CT scans may reveal diffuse infiltration, nodules, annular ring shadow lesions, cavitations, linear opacities, lung abscesses, pleural effusion, and pneumothorax. Moreover, x-rays give additional information but are not diagnostic.

TREATMENT

The majority of the time, oral anti-parasite medications can treat paragonimiasis. Praziquantel and triclabendazole are both recognized as effective treatments. Praziquantel 25 mg/kg orally is used thrice daily for two days.

In countries where it is accessible, triclabendazole is a suitable medication; the dosage is 10 mg/kg orally given once postprandially, or, for severe infections, two doses of 10 mg/kg given postprandially, separated by a gap of 12 hours.

Extrapulmonary infections are treated with praziquantel; however, many courses could be necessary.

Praziquantel may be used with a brief course of corticosteroids in cases of brain infections to lessen the inflammatory reaction brought on by dying flukes.

Additionally, removing skin lesions or, in rare cases, brain cysts may need surgery.

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