PALONOSETRON INTRAVENOUS

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Aloxi

GENERIC NAME(S): PALONOSETRON HCL

 

Description: Palonosetron is a 5-HT3 receptor blocker that works by blocking the action of serotonin in certain parts of the brain and the nervous system, which helps reduce nausea and vomiting.

Pharmacokinetics:

Absorption: Cmax is dose proportional.

Distribution: Volume of distribution: 6.9-7.9 l/kg. Protein binding: Approx 62%.

Metabolism: 40% metabolised via kidney, 50% metabolised by liver CYP2D6 (mainly), CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 isoenzymes. 50% of drug metabolised, <1 % of metabolites have agonist activity on the 5-HT3 receptors.

Excretion: Average terminal half-life: 40 hr.

This medication is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy. It may also be used to prevent nausea and vomiting after surgery.

How to use palonosetron intravenous:

This medication is given by injection into a vein by a health care professional. It is given as directed by your doctor, usually 30 minutes before chemotherapy or right before anesthesia for surgery. In children, the dosage is based on weight.

Pregnancy Risk: Category B (No proven risk in humans)

 

Side effects:

If any of the following side effects occur while taking palonosetron, check with your doctor or nurse immediately:

Less common

  • Blurred vision
  • chest pain or discomfort
  • confusion
  • difficult breathing
  • dizziness, faintness, or lightheadedness when getting up from a lying or sitting position suddenly
  • fainting
  • fever
  • irregular heartbeats that continue
  • sweating
  • unusual tiredness or weakness

Rare

  • Bleeding, blistering, burning, coldness, discoloration of the skin, feeling of pressure, hives, infection, inflammation, itching, lumps, numbness, pain, rash, redness, scarring, soreness, stinging, swelling, tenderness, tingling, ulceration, or warmth at the injection site
  • extra heartbeats
  • nervousness
  • pain in the shoulders, arms, jaw, or neck
  • pounding in the ears
  • slow or fast heartbeat

If any of the following symptoms of overdose occur while taking palonosetron, get emergency help immediately:

Symptoms of overdose

  • Bluish color of the fingernails, lips, skin, palms, or nail beds
  • collapse
  • gasping to breathe
  • paleness of the skin
  • seizures

Some palonosetron side effects may not need any medical attention:

More common

  • Difficulty having a bowel movement (stool)
  • headache

Less common

  • Acid or sour stomach
  • belching
  • bloated or full feeling
  • blood in the urine
  • bloody or black, tarry stools
  • burning, crawling, itching, numbness, prickling, “pins and needles”, or tingling feelings
  • change in vision
  • chills
  • continuing ringing or buzzing
  • cough
  • decrease in frequency of urination
  • decrease in urine volume
  • deep breathing
  • difficulty in passing urine
  • drowsiness
  • dry mouth
  • excess air or gas in the stomach or intestines
  • excessive sleeping
  • eye irritation
  • fear
  • feeling happy
  • feeling of warmth
  • flushed dry skin
  • fruit-like breath odor
  • general feeling of discomfort or illness
  • hearing loss
  • heartburn
  • hiccups
  • impaired vision
  • increased hunger
  • increased thirst
  • increased urination
  • indigestion
  • joint pain
  • large, flat, blue or purplish patches in the skin
  • loss of appetite
  • muscle aches and pains
  • muscle tremors
  • numbness or tingling in the hands, feet, or lips
  • painful knees and ankles
  • painful urination
  • passing gas
  • raised red swellings on the skin, the buttocks, legs or ankles
  • rash
  • red, sore eyes
  • redness of the face, neck, arms, and occasionally, upper chest
  • runny nose
  • sore throat
  • stomach discomfort, upset, or pain
  • sugar in the urine
  • swelling or protruding veins
  • trouble sleeping
  • unexplained noise in the ears
  • unexplained weight loss
  • unusually deep sleep
  • unusually long duration of sleep
  • vein discoloration
  • weakness or heaviness of the legs

Before using palonosetron, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other anti-nausea serotonin blockers (such as ondansetron, granisetron); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history.

This drug may make you dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Limit alcoholic beverages.

This medication should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is unknown if this medication passes into breast milk or may harm a nursing infant. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

 

Interactions:

Some products that may interact with this drug include: anthracyclines (e.g., doxorubicin, daunorubicin), apomorphine.

The risk of serotonin syndrome/toxicity increases if you are also taking other drugs that increase serotonin. Examples include street drugs such as MDMA/”ecstasy,” St. John’s wort, certain antidepressants (including SSRIs such as fluoxetine/paroxetine, SNRIs such as duloxetine/venlafaxine), among others. The risk of serotonin syndrome/toxicity may be more likely when you start or increase the dose of these drugs.

If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately.

Notes

Not applicable.

Missed Dose

For the best possible benefit, it is important to receive each scheduled dose of this medication as directed. If you miss a dose, contact your doctor or pharmacist immediately to establish a new dosing schedule.

Storage

Not applicable. This medication is given in a clinic and will not be stored at home.

 

Brands:

Available Brands:

Aloxi [ Mundipharma ]

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