Osteochondritis dissecans, also known as OCD, is a condition in the joints that happens when the bone in a joint has separated from the cartilage, and the latter starts to die from the lack of blood flowing to it. Pain and reduced joint range of motion in the damaged area will result when the cartilage and tiny pieces of the parted bone start breaking loose.

Young children and teenagers are the most usual patients of osteochondritis dissecans. Symptoms generally occur after experiencing a joint injury or after several months of high-impact activities that affect the joints such as running and jumping and other high-impact sports. The most common areas where this condition occurs are located in the ankles, elbows, knees but can also be found in other joints. The severity of osteochondritis dissecans is indicated in stages according to whether the fragment stays in one place if it’s only partially detached or entirely detached and the injury’s size.

There are very few or no symptoms if the loose pieces of bone and cartilage stay in place. The joint injury from osteochondritis dissecans might heal independently, especially for young children who are still growing and whose bones are developing. Surgery may be necessary for recovery if the patient feels continuous pain and if the bone and cartilage fragments get caught between the joint’s moving parts.


Watery but non-bloody diarrhea that lasts for weeks or months is the main symptom of lymphocytic colitis. Other symptoms may include:

  • Weight loss
  • Dehydration
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue or weakness
  • Joint pain
  • Abdominal pain and cramping
  • Loss of bowel control (fecal incontinence)
  • Bloating


Your health provider will ask about your health history and your symptoms. The doctor may need to perform a series of tests to rule out other bowel diseases like celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, and infectious colitis. Some of the tests that would help the doctor to diagnose the condition properly are:

  • Blood tests
  • Tests for celiac disease
  • Stool analysis
  • Endoscopy
  • Imaging tests (CT Scan, MRI, Upper GI Series)

You may also need to undergo colonoscopy. The test uses special tools that can allow the doctor to examine the lining of your colon and rectum carefully. During the colonoscopy, the doctor will take out a small sample tissue of your colon (biopsy) and examine it under a microscope to tell if you have lymphocytic colitis.


Treatment depends on the symptoms and their severity. The doctor will review the medications that the patients are taking. Certain drugs are believed to cause lymphocytic colitis; hence, the doctor may recommend changing or stopping certain medications that the patient is currently taking.

The doctor may also prescribe medications to help the patient deal with the symptoms. Such medications are:

  • antidiarrheal medications such as bismuth subsalicylate, diphenoxylate/atropine, and loperamide
  • corticosteroids such as budesonide and prednisone
  • anti-inflammatory drugs such as mesalamine and sulfasalazine
  • cholestyramine resin: a drug that blocks bile acids
  • antibiotics such as metronidazole and erythromycin
  • immunomodulators such as mercaptopurine, azathioprine, and methotrexate
  • anti-TNF therapies such as infliximab and adalimumab

The doctor will also recommend the following dietary changes:

  • Avoiding caffeinated drinks and food with artificial sugars
  • Drinking lots of water especially during episodes of diarrhea
  • Eating a milk-free diet is the patient is lactose intolerant
  • Eating a gluten-free diet

Severe cases of lymphocytic colitis may need surgery. This, however, is a rare treat; and often, people respond well with treatment.

Related Articles


Overview and FactsTypes and SymptomsDiagnosis & MedicationsOverview and Facts Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that affects the [...]


Overview and FactsTypes and SymptomsDiagnosis & MedicationsOverview and Facts Trichinosis, also known as trichinellosis, is a parasitic infection caused by [...]


Overview and FactsTypes and SymptomsDiagnosis & MedicationsOverview and Facts Trigeminal neuralgia is a neurological condition characterized by severe facial pain. [...]