Non-polio enterovirus infections are very prevalent, causing million infections and tens of thousands of hospitalizations each year. Most individuals who get these viruses either don’t feel sick at all or just have minor sickness like the common cold. However, some individuals may have severe problems, particularly babies and those with compromised immune systems.


The types of non-polio enteroviruses includes:

  • Coxsackievirus A,
  • Coxsackievirus B
  • Echoviruses,
  • Enterovirus D68


Because they have not yet developed immunity (protection) from prior exposures to the viruses, infants, adolescents, and teens are more likely than adults to get an infection and become ill. Adults may get the infection as well, although they are less likely to have symptoms or they may be less severe. Mild sickness symptoms might include:

  • Fever
  • Cough, sneezing, and runny nose
  • Body rash
  • Lips blisters
  • Muscular and body pains

Non-polio enterovirus infections may sometimes lead to:

  • A viral eye infection
  • Diseases of the mouth and hands
  • Viral meningitis (infection of the membrane encasing the spinal cord and/or brain)
  • Viral encephalitis (brain infection)
  • Heart infection known as myocarditis
  • Pericarditis (infection of the sac around the heart)
  • Acute flaccid paralysis (a rapid development of weakness in one or more limbs or legs)
  • Muscular inflammation (slow, increasing muscular weakening)
  • Difficulty breathing


For simple cases, a laboratory diagnosis is often not necessary. It is possible to diagnose complex instances by separating the virus:

  • via culturing of feces or upper respiratory tract samples
  • from cerebrospinal fluid samples, biopsy samples, or skin lesions

Both viral culture and molecular methods may be used, including:

  • Polymerase chain reaction
  • Sequencing

For precise virus strain characterization, cultivation to produce a viral isolation is preferable. Blood samples taken during the acute and convalescent periods of sickness might show a 4-fold increase in neutralizing antibody levels, which indicates a recent infection.


There is no particular therapy for non-polio enterovirus infections other than polio. Usually, people with non-polio enterovirus infections that produce moderate illness just need to address their symptoms. This includes taking over-the-counter cold medicines as necessary and drinking enough water to remain hydrated. Most folks fully recover. However, certain conditions brought on by enteroviruses other than polio might be serious enough to need hospitalization. You should speak with your doctor if your symptoms cause you any worry.

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