Lujo hemorrhagic fever (LUHF) is a single-stranded Arenaviridae viral infection. It is caused by the Lujo virus. The little clinical evidence was obtained from a tiny bloodstream infection cluster of hemorrhagic illness in South Africa in 2008. The death rate in the instances was 80% (4/5).

The first patient, whose source of illness remained unclear, infected three healthcare professionals. A fourth health professional who had ribavirin therapy and was the lone survivor developed a tertiary infection. The Lujo virus is the second African hemorrhagic fever infection to be identified. (The Lassa virus was discovered in 1969.)


In the initial outbreak, all five individuals had symptoms that were consistent with major Lassa fever. After 7 to 13 days of incubation, symptoms include muscular pain, headache, and fever.

The severity of the illness grows as follows:

  • Neck and face swelling
  • Diarrhea
  • A morbilliform rash on the trunk and face
  • Pharyngitis (sore throat)

During the condition, there was little bleeding.

In the fatal instances (4/5 patients), there was a brief improvement preceded by the following:

  • circulatory collapse and indications of neurological disease
  • rapid worsening accompanied by respiratory distress

At the time of death, all patients who screened positive for Arenaviruses Lujo disease in the mother exhibited low blood platelets, low white blood cell count (at the start, increasing later), and high liver function values. Infection of the fetus may be linked to infection of the mother, and anecdotal data shows that infected mothers are more likely to miscarry.


Lujo virus was extracted from blood on days 2 to 13 after the acute fever phase began. In addition, the virus was isolated from post-mortem liver tissue. A comprehensive genomic analysis of the Lujo virus contributed to the development of specialized molecular detection (RT-PCR) methods.

Serologically, ELISA and indirect immunofluorescent tests may be used to detect Lujo hemorrhagic fever (LUHF). Clinical material should be evaluated using specific assays.


Supportive care for Lujo hemorrhagic fever (LUHF) is essential. This includes the following:

  • Shock management
  • Pain relief
  • Transfusion when necessary
  • Hydration maintenance
  • Sedation
  • Routine precautions for people with bleeding disorders

Ribavirin, an antiviral medication, has promise in treating Lujo hemorrhagic fever (LUHF). The use of convalescent plasma treatment has been shown to drastically cut death rates in arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers, and the data from the patient who survived Lujo provide support for its use.

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