Dizziness is a common symptom that can affect people of all ages. It may be a feeling of lightheadedness, unsteadiness, or vertigo, which is the sensation of spinning or whirling. Dizziness can be caused by a variety of factors, from dehydration to more serious medical conditions.
What are the possible causes of dizziness? As mentioned, dehydration may cause dizziness and this may be brought about by failure to drink enough water, excessive sweating or diarrhea. Along with dizziness, other symptoms may be present, such as thirst, dry mouth, and fatigue.
Inner ear disorders, low blood pressure, certain medications (e.g. antidepressants and sedatives) and neurological conditions (e.g. Brain tumors, Parkinson’s disease) may also cause dizziness. Lack of sleep or rest and stress contribute to worsen dizziness.
Vertigo, described as spinning or whirling characteristic of dizziness, whether a person is either stationary or moving, may have a significant impact on a person’s quality of life. Although it may be as benign as causing intermittent uncomfortable episodes, it may also be disruptive and debilitating. While vertigo is not a disease in itself, it is often a symptom of an underlying condition.
There are two types of vertigo: peripheral and central. Peripheral vertigo is the most common type and is caused by problems in the inner ear. Central vertigo, on the other hand, is caused by problems in the brain or central nervous system.
Peripheral vertigo is often caused by a condition called Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV). This occurs when tiny calcium crystals in the inner ear become dislodged and move into the fluid-filled canals of the inner ear. This can cause the inner era to send incorrect signals to the brain about the body’s position and movement, resulting in vertigo.
Other causes of peripheral vertigo include Meniere’s disease, vestibular neuritis, and labyrinthitis. Meniere’s disease is a disorder of the inner ear that causes episodes of vertigo, tinnitus (ringing in the ear), and hearing loss. Vestibular neuritis and labyrinthitis ae caused by viral infections that affect the inner ear.
Central vertigo, on the other hand, is often caused by conditions that affect the brain, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, or a tumor. In some cases, medication can also cause vertigo as a side effect.
Symptoms of vertigo can vary depending on the underlying cause. However, common symptoms include dizziness, a sensation of spinning or whirling, loss of balance, nausea, and vomiting. Symptoms can last for a few seconds or several hours, and the severity can range from mild to severe.
Here are some simplified approaches to vertigo:
Betahistines are a class of drugs that are commonly used to treat vertigo. As a histamine analog, betahistine acts as a partial agonist at H1 and H3 receptors and as an antagonist at H4 receptors. This class of drug is thought to work by increasing blood flow to the inner ear, which can help reduce the symptoms of vertigo. It is also believed to act on the vestibular system in the brainstem, where it can reduce the activity of overactive neurons that may be causing vertigo.
Betahistines are used to treat such conditions as Meniere’s disease (a disorder of the inner ear characterized by vertigo, tinnitus, ad hearing loss), vestibular migraine, tinnitus (ringing or buzzing sound in the eras). They are generally well tolerated, with few side effects. The most common side effects are headache, nausea, and gastrointestinal upset. In rare cases, betahistines can cause allergic reactions. But generally, betahistine is an effective treatment option for many cases of vertigo.
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