Kidney disease, chronic (CKD) is a condition where blood flow in the kidneys is interrupted and not normal in its flow. This means that your kidneys are damaged. It happens slowly over a long period of time. Wastes build up in the body, further causing organ damage. Other health problems may occur also when having CKD.

Kidney diseases are risky if you have these :

  • CKD is usually caused by diabetes. High blood glucose damages blood vessels in our kidneys. It happens in approximately one out of three diabetic person
  • High blood also causes high blood pressure. Blood vessels in the kidney are damaged by increased pressure in the blood vessels. About one in five of hypertensive adults have CKD.
  • You have a higher risk for heart disease when you have kidney disease
  • Family related backgrounds about kidney failure is a must to check if you are at risk of CKD. It is usually inherited. It is important to be checked by the doctor if you have kidney diseases.


Kidney diseases cause advanced, severe symptoms that cannot be recognized by most people. Examples of it are:

  • Gets more tired and no more energy
  • No concentration
  • Have less appetite
  • Have trouble sleeping
  • Have muscle cramping at night
  • Have swollen feet and ankles
  • Have morning puffiness around your eyes
  • Dry, itchy skin
  • Frequent urination, especially at night


Anyone can get chronic kidney disease at any age. However, some people are more likely than others to develop kidney disease. You may have an increased risk for kidney disease if you:

  • Have diabetes
  • With high blood pressure
  • Family history of kidney diseases
  • Older
  • Races that are prone to diabetes are African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and American Indians.


Chronic kidney disease is diagnosed in several stages:

Stage 1: Normal or high glomerular filtration rate (GFR > 90 mL/min)

Stage 2: Mild CKD (GFR = 60-89 mL/min)

Stage 3A: Moderate CKD (GFR = 45-59 mL/min)

Stage 3B: Moderate CKD (GFR = 30-44 mL/min)

Stage 4: Severe CKD (GFR = 15-29 mL/min)

Stage 5: End Stage CKD (GFR <15 mL/min)

The measurement of microalbuminuria (small amount of protein) must be done annually in patients with diabetes. It can help detect its early symptoms.


Chronic diseases have no cure as for now. But to control its signs and symptoms, one may use therapies, complication reduction methods, and ways that lessen the progression of the disease.

These are the following treatments:


Hemoglobin is the pigment in red blood cells that delivers oxygen throughout the body. The patient is suffering from anemia if hemoglobin is very low. Blood transfusions are required in patients with kidney diseases. Iron supplements are taken by kidney disease patients in the form of injections or ferrous sulfate tablets.

Phosphate balance

Phosphate elimination is hard for people with kidney diseases. Phosphate may be reduced, which also suggests that they should lessen dairy product consumption.

High blood pressure

One of the common problems among patients with CKD is high blood pressure. The lesser the blood pressure, the better the kidney is protected and lowers the progression of the disease.

Itchiness of skin

Antihistamines, like chlorphenamine, may be good in easing itching.


Kidneys that malfunction can cause toxins to build up and diseases may occur

Treatment in End Stage

Serious complications may get triggered and may lead to higher risks.

Kidney dialysis

If the kidney is not functioning properly, waste products and excess fluids are removed from the blood through a process called kidney dialysis. It has two types.

Hemodialysis is a process where all of the pumped blood goes to the dialyzer (an artificial kidney). It lasts for 3 hours.

Peritoneal dialysis is done through the abdomen of the patient where the blood is filtered through a network of tiny blood vessels inside the peritoneal cavity. This is done to remove waste and excess fluid while draining out fluid.

Kidney transplant

For patients with no issues or any other conditions like kidney failure, kidney transplant is a better option. Dialysis is often required until a kidney transplant.


Kidney failure treatment requires a proper diet. It may be helpful to lessen the amount of protein in your diet.

Vitamin D

Kidney disease patients tend to have low vitamin D levels, which is essential to have healthy and strong bones. CKD patients must have vitamin D.

Fluid retention

It is necessary for people with chronic kidney diseases to control the amount of fluids taken. Too many fluids can harm the body while too little can also damage the kidneys.

Related Articles


Overview and FactsTypes and SymptomsDiagnosis & MedicationsOverview and Facts Referred pain is a phenomenon where pain is perceived at a [...]


Overview and FactsTypes and SymptomsDiagnosis & MedicationsOverview and Facts Quinoline yellow is a synthetic food colorant commonly used in the [...]


Overview and FactsTypes and SymptomsDiagnosis & MedicationsOverview and Facts Pneumothorax is a condition characterized by the presence of air in [...]