High blood pressure or hypertension can lead to heart disease and stroke. Some causes of hypertension include obesity, drinking too much alcohol, smoking, and family history. Beta-blockers usually treats hypertension.

Malignant hypertension is rapid rise in high blood pressure with any type of organ damage. It has a blood pressure that’s typically above 180/120 that should be treated as a medical emergency.

Secondary hypertension is high blood pressure caused by another disease. As long as the root cause is treated, blood pressure usually returns to normal or is significantly lowered. These causes include the following conditions:

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Sleep apnea
  • Tumors or other diseases of the adrenal gland
  • Coarctation of the aorta — A narrowing of the aorta that you are born with that can cause high blood pressure in the arms
  • Pregnancy
  • Use of birth control pills
  • Alcohol addiction
  • Thyroid dysfunction

Primary hypertension is when the cause of high blood pressure is not known. Certain factors are recognized as contributing to high blood pressure.

Renal hypertension, also called renovascular hypertension, is elevated blood pressure caused by kidney disease. It can usually be controlled by blood pressure drugs. Some people with renal hypertension can be helped by angioplasty, stenting, or surgery on the blood vessels of the kidney.

Symptoms of High Blood Pressure:

Some hypertensives may not know that they have hypertension. Regular checkups should be done to know if your blood pressure is high. Checkups are important, especially if you have a hypertensive relative.

If your blood pressure is extremely high, there may be certain symptoms to look out for, including:

  • Severe headache
  • Fatigue or confusion
  • Vision problems
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Blood in the urine
  • Pounding in your chest, neck, or ears

Untreated hypertension can lead to serious diseases, including stroke, heart disease, kidney failure and eye problems.


In hypertension, you usually don’t know that you have it. There may be no symptoms or signs but it can damage the body, cause heart diseases and stroke. By using the sphygmomanometer, your blood pressure can be measured. A blood pressure above 140/90 is usually diagnosed with hypertension. Regular monitoring of your blood pressure is important, especially if it has ever been high or above the “normal” range, or if you have a family history of hypertension.

In addition to measuring your blood pressure, your doctor will ask about your medical history, assess your risk factors, talk about your family history and conduct a physical exam.

If you’re diagnosed with high blood pressure, your doctor may recommend other tests, such as:

  • Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
  • Echocardiogram



Deciding whether to treat high blood pressure with medicine and choosing the best medicine may depend on:

  • How high your blood pressure is and what your blood pressure goal is.
  • Whether you have signs that high blood pressure has caused organ damage
  • Whether you have other medical conditions
  • Whether you think you can succeed at making lifestyle changes.

Doctors usually prescribe a single, low-dose medicine first. Your doctor may change the dosage or try a different medicine or combination of medicines if blood pressure is not controlled. It is common to try several medicines before blood pressure is successfully controlled. Many people need more than one medicine to get the best results.

Medicine choices

Medicine choices include:

  • Diuretics
  • ACE inhibitors.
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).
  • Beta-blockers.
  • Calcium channel blockers.
  • Direct renin inhibitors.
  • Other medicines for high blood pressure, including alpha-blockers and vasodilators.

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