If you are seeing your doctor for hematuria, there are many questions you will need to answer. Your doctor will ask you about the amount of blood and when you see it during urination. They will want to know how often you urinate, any pain you are experiencing, if you see blood clots, and what medications you are currently taking.
Your doctor will then give you a physical examination and collect a sample of your urine for testing. The analysis of your urine can confirm the presence of blood and detect bacteria if an infection is the cause. Your doctor may order imaging tests such as a CT scan.
Another possible test your doctor may want to do is a cystoscopy.
The treatment of hematuria depends on its cause. In general, people with exercise-related hematuria do not need any treatment other than to modify their exercise programs. People with drug-related hematuria will improve if they stop taking the medication that caused the problem. Antibiotics typically will cure infection-related hematuria.
For other causes of hematuria, treatment may be more complex:
Kidney stones — Smaller stones sometimes may be flushed by increased fluid intake. Larger stones may require surgery or lithotripsy.
Trauma — Treatment depends on the type and severity of injuries. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary.
Tumor in bladder or kidney — Treatment is determined by the type of cancer and how much the cancer has spread (its stage), as well as by the patient’s age, general health and personal preferences. The primary types of treatment are surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and immunotherapy.
Glomerulonephritis — Treatment may include antibiotics to treat any infection, diuretics which help to increase the amount of urine excreted from the body, medications to control high blood pressure and dietary changes to reduce the work of the kidneys. However, children who develop glomerulonephritis related to a streptococcal infection often recover after antibiotics without needing additional treatment. If it is caused by an autoimmune disorder, such as lupus, medications to suppress the immune system, are usually prescribed.
Bleeding disorders — Treatment depends on the specific type of bleeding disorder. Patients with hemophilia can be treated with infusions of clotting factors or with fresh frozen plasma, a type of transfusion that provides missing factors.