Group A streptococcal infection (GAS) is caused by the streptococcus pyogenes, the most prevalent form of Group A (beta-hemolytic) Streptococcus. This infection is a frequent illness that may result in impetigo, scarlet fever, or sore throat. Furthermore, it may produce a toxic shock condition identical to that produced by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, commonly called golden staph, in rare situations. Group A streptococcal infection is also one of the causes of necrotizing fasciitis (flesh eating disease), a rare condition. It may sometimes cause major problems like rheumatic fever, which might harm the kidneys and heart.


Symptoms of the group A streptococcal infection might include:

  1. Streptococcal Sore Throat 

Streptococcal sore throat signs typically involve:

  • Gastrointestinal problems and vomiting, especially in kids.
  • Painful and swollen lymph nodes within and around the neck.
  • Chills, fever, and painful, red throat with dense pus-like material surrounding the tonsils.
  1. Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever symptoms involve:

  • A pink-red rash spreads over the belly and sides of the breast, and skin folds due to throat irritation. If rubbed, the rash might seem like sandpaper.
  • Paleness surrounds the lips and a vivid red tongue.
  1. Impetigo

Impetigo may be caused by streptococcal bacteria or by staphylococcus aureus germs. The following are the symptoms of impetigo:

  • Fever and swelling of the lymph nodes.
  • In severe conditions, blisters form around the mouth and the nose, as well as on the legs.


Diagnosis of group A streptococcal infection is determined by its symptoms.

  • The detection of the bacterium from a throat swab is the standard way of diagnosing instances of scarlet fever and pharyngitis. Blood tests could be ordered as well.
  • Impetigo is confirmed by swabbing the crust of the sores or blisters and looking for germs.
  • Toxic shock syndrome is identified by examining signs and, in certain circumstances, blood testing.


The conventional therapy for group A streptococcal infection is a course of antibiotics; the length will vary depending on the location of the disease. The following antibiotics could be prescribed:

  • When you are sensitive to penicillin, you should take a cephalosporin or a macrolide antibiotic instead.
  • Impetigo antibiotic ointments.

Other antibiotics are also helpful. In addition to medications, many infections need supportive treatment in an intensive care unit and, in some instances, surgeries. 

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