GRANISETRON

Description: Granisetron blocks serotonin in the chemoreceptor zone that is a selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist with little or no affinity for other serotonin receptors.

Duration: 24 hr.

Pharmacokinetics:

Absorption: Rapidly absorbed after oral admin. Oral bioavailability: About 60%.

Distribution: Protein binding: About 65%.

Metabolism: Hepatically metabolised, mainly by N-demethylation.

Excretion: IV admin: Elimination half-life: 4-5 hr in healthy subjects; 9-12 hr in cancer patients.

Granisetron belongs to a class of medications called 5-HT3 blockers that works by blocking one of the body’s natural substances (serotonin) that can cause vomiting. This medication prevents nausea and vomiting caused by surgery or cancer drug treatment (chemotherapy).

How to use granisetron (PF) intravenous

Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start using granisetron and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

This drug is given into a vein as directed by your doctor, usually 30 minutes before cancer chemotherapy or before/during/after surgery. The drug may be given directly into a vein over 30 seconds, or it may be mixed in an IV fluid and given into a vein over a longer time (5 minutes).

If you are giving this medication to yourself at home, learn all preparation and usage instructions from your health care professional. Before using, check this product visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the liquid. Learn how to store and discard medical supplies safely.

Do not mix granisetron with other drugs in the same injection or inject other drugs into the same vein at the same time. If you have questions about using this medication properly, consult your pharmacist.

Dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment. The dosage may also be based on weight. Use this medication exactly as directed to get the most benefit from it. Do not use more medication or use it more often than prescribed. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have questions.

Tell your doctor if your nausea does not improve or if it worsens.

Tell your doctor promptly if any of these effects persist or worsen:

  • Headache
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness
  • Fever
  • pain/redness/swelling at the injection site

Tell your doctor right away if you have any stomach/abdominal pain.

Get medical help right away if any of these rare but serious side effects occur:

  • chest pain
  • fast/irregular heartbeat
  • severe dizziness
  • fainting

This medication may increase serotonin and rarely cause a very serious condition called serotonin syndrome/toxicity. The risk increases if you are also taking other drugs that increase serotonin, so tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the drugs you take (see Drug Interactions section). Get medical help right away if you develop some of the following symptoms:

  • fast heartbeat
  • hallucinations
  • loss of coordination
  • severe dizziness
  • severe nausea/vomiting/diarrhea
  • twitching muscles
  • unexplained fever
  • unusual agitation/restlessness

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including:

  • rash
  • itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat)
  • severe dizziness
  • trouble breathing

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Precautions

Before using granisetron, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other 5-HT3 blockers (e.g., dolasetron, ondansetron); or if you have any other allergies. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Tell your doctor or pharmacist of stomach/intestinal problems (e.g., recent surgery, ileus, swelling) before using this medication.

This drug may make you dizzy. Avoid alcoholic beverages.

The risk of QT prolongation may be increased if you have certain medical conditions or are taking other drugs that may cause QT prolongation. Before using granisetron, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all the drugs you take and if you have any of the following conditions: certain heart problems (heart failure, slow heartbeat, QT prolongation in the EKG), family history of certain heart problems (QT prolongation in the EKG, sudden cardiac death).

Low levels of potassium or magnesium in the blood may also increase your risk of QT prolongation. This risk may increase if you use certain drugs (such as diuretics/”water pills”) or if you have conditions such as severe sweating, diarrhea, or vomiting. Talk to your doctor about using granisetron safely.

Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially QT prolongation (see above).

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is not known whether this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

 

Interactions

Apomorphine may interact with this drug.

Many drugs besides granisetron may affect the heart rhythm (QT prolongation), including amiodarone, dofetilide, pimozide, procainamide, quinidine, sotalol, macrolide antibiotics (such as erythromycin), among others.

The risk of serotonin syndrome/toxicity increases if you are also taking other drugs that increase serotonin. Examples include street drugs such as MDMA/”ecstasy,” St. John’s wort, certain antidepressants (including SSRIs such as fluoxetine/paroxetine, SNRIs such as duloxetine/venlafaxine), among others. The risk of serotonin syndrome/toxicity may be more likely when you start or increase the dose of these drugs.

Overdose

If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately.

Notes

Do not share this medication with others.

Missed Dose

Tell your doctor if you miss your dose or did not use your dose at the correct time before your scheduled chemotherapy appointment or surgery. Your treatment or surgery may need to be rescheduled.

Storage

Consult the product instructions and your pharmacist for storage details. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

 

Brands

Available Brands

Frezitron [ Fresenius Kabi ]

Also marketed as

Kytril [ Roche ]

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