GLIPIZIDE

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Glucotrol

GENERIC NAME(S): GLIPIZIDE

 

Description: Glipizide stimulates insulin release from pancreatic β-cells and reduces glucose output from the liver. It also increases insulin sensitivity at peripheral target sites.

Duration: 12-24 hr.

Pharmacokinetics:

Absorption: Readily absorbed from the GI tract. Food delays absorption. Bioavailability: 90-100%. Time to peak plasma concentration: 1-3 hr.

Distribution: Volume of distribution: 10-11 L. Plasma protein binding: 98-99% (primarily to albumin).

Metabolism: Undergoes hepatic metabolism via CYP2C9 isoenzyme.

Excretion: Via urine (as inactive metabolites) and faeces. Half-life: Approx 2-4 hr.

Glipizide belongs to the class of drugs known as sulfonylureas that lowers blood sugar by causing the release of your body’s natural insulin. It is used with a proper diet and exercise program to control high blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. It may also be used with other diabetes medications.

How to use glipizide

Take this medication by mouth 30 minutes before breakfast or the first meal of the day as directed by your doctor, usually once daily. Some patients, especially those taking higher doses, may be directed to take this drug twice a day. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.

To reduce your risk of side effects, your doctor may direct you to start this medication at a low dose and gradually increase your dose. Follow your doctor’s instructions carefully.

If you are already taking another anti-diabetic drug (such as chlorpropamide), follow your doctor’s directions carefully for stopping the old drug and starting glipizide.

Colesevelam can decrease the absorption of glipizide. If you are taking colesevelam, take glipizide at least 4 hours before taking colesevelam.

Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time(s) each day.

Tell your doctor if your condition does not improve or if it worsens (your blood sugar levels are too high or too low).

Tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly if any of these effects persist or worsen:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • loss of appetite
  • diarrhea
  • constipation
  • upset stomach
  • headache
  • weight gain

Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including:

  • signs of infection (such as persistent sore throat, fever)
  • easy bleeding/bruising
  • stomach pain
  • yellowing eyes/skin
  • dark urine
  • unusual tiredness/weakness
  • unusual/sudden weight gain
  • mental/mood changes
  • swelling hands/feet
  • seizures

This medication can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). To help prevent low blood sugar, eat meals on a regular schedule, and do not skip meals. It is a good habit to carry glucose tablets or gel to treat low blood sugar. If you don’t have these reliable forms of glucose, rapidly raise your blood sugar by eating a quick source of sugar such as table sugar, honey, or candy, or drink fruit juice or non-diet soda. Tell your doctor immediately about the reaction and the use of this product. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to find out what you should do if you miss a meal.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including:

  • rash
  • itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat)
  • severe dizziness
  • trouble breathing

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Precautions

Before taking glipizide, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of:

  • liver disease
  • kidney disease
  • thyroid disease
  • electrolyte imbalance (hyponatremia)
  • certain hormonal conditions (adrenal/pituitary insufficiency, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone-SIADH)

You may experience blurred vision, dizziness, or drowsiness due to extremely low or high blood sugar levels

Limit alcohol while taking this medication because it can increase your risk of developing low blood sugar. Alcohol can rarely interact with glipizide and cause a serious reaction (disulfiram-like reaction) with symptoms such as:

  • facial flushing
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • dizziness
  • stomach pain

It may be harder to control your blood sugar when your body is stressed (such as due to fever, infection, injury, or surgery). Consult your doctor because this may require a change in your treatment plan, medications, or blood sugar testing.

This medication may make you more sensitive to the sun. Use a sunscreen and wear protective clothing when outdoors.

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially low blood sugar.

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

Pregnancy may cause or worsen diabetes. Discuss a plan with your doctor for managing your blood sugar while pregnant. Your doctor may change your diabetes treatment during your pregnancy (such as diet and medications including insulin).

It is unknown if this medication passes into breast milk. However, similar drugs pass into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

 

Interactions

Beta-blocker medications (including metoprolol, propranolol, glaucoma eye drops such as timolol) may prevent the fast/pounding heartbeat you would usually feel when your blood sugar level falls too low (hypoglycemia).

Check the labels on all your medicines (such as cough-and-cold products) because they may contain ingredients that could affect your blood sugar. Ask your pharmacist about using those products safely.

Overdose

If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately. Symptoms of overdose may include: shakiness, fast heartbeat, sweating, loss of consciousness.

Notes

Do not share this medication with others.

Attend a diabetes education program to learn more about diabetes and the important aspects of its treatment, including medications, diet, exercise, and getting regular eye/foot/medical exams.

Learn the symptoms of high and low blood sugar and how to treat low blood sugar. Check your blood sugar levels regularly as directed.

Keep all regular medical and laboratory appointments. Laboratory and/or medical tests (such as liver and kidney function tests, fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, complete blood counts) should be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Storage

Store at room temperature away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

 

Brands

Available Brands

Glimax [ Pharma Nutria ] Glipdin [ MedChoice Pharma ]
Glucolip [ Khriz Pharma ] Minidiab/Minidiab OD [ Pfizer ]

Also marketed as

Brilizid [ CCPC ] Glix [ Yung Shin ]

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