Fasciolopsis infection is caused by the gigantic intestinal fluke, Fasciolopsis buski. There are several distinct types of flukes, all of which are parasitic flatworms that may infect various areas of the body (blood vessels, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and liver). F. buski is prevalent in South and Southeast Asia, and both pigs and humans are major carriers of the illness. In endemic regions, the frequency of infection is higher among kids. Fasciolopsis cannot be spread directly between humans. The eggs of these parasites are passed through human (and pig) feces, where they grow in the water and infect snails. After further growth, the parasites abandon the snail intermediate host and encyst on aquatic plants.
Furthermore, individuals become contaminated with Fasciolopsis infection when they consume undercooked or raw aquatic plants containing the organism encysted on them, or when they consume polluted water or eat plants that contain infectious metacercariae, such as bamboo shoots, watercress, or water chestnuts. Adult worms cling to and ulcerate the proximal small intestinal mucosa. Adult worms have a one-year lifespan.