Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of cancer that primarily affects children and young adults. It is a type of bone cancer that can also occur in soft tissues. Ewing sarcoma arises from certain cells in the bone or surrounding tissues and is characterized by the abnormal growth of these cells.

The exact cause of Ewing sarcoma is still unknown. However, it is believed to result from genetic mutations or chromosomal translocations, which lead to the development of cancerous cells.

The prognosis for Ewing sarcoma depends on various factors, including the tumor size and location, the presence of metastasis, the response to treatment, and the patient’s overall health. With early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, the long-term survival rate for localized Ewing sarcoma is around 70-80%. However, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, the prognosis may be less favorable.

Alongside medical treatment, supportive care is crucial for managing the physical and emotional impact of Ewing sarcoma. This may include pain management, physical therapy, nutritional support, and psychosocial support for the patient and their family.


Ewing sarcoma is primarily classified into two main types: classical Ewing sarcoma and atypical Ewing sarcoma.

1. Classical Ewing Sarcoma: This is the most common type of Ewing sarcoma. It typically affects children and young adults and arises in the bones, particularly in the long bones of the arms and legs, as well as the pelvis, chest wall, and spine. Classical Ewing sarcoma is characterized by a specific chromosomal translocation called t(11;22)(q24;q12), which involves a fusion of the EWSR1 gene on chromosome 22 and the FLI1 gene on chromosome 11. This translocation leads to the abnormal production of a fusion protein that plays a role in the development of cancer.

2. Atypical Ewing Sarcoma: Atypical Ewing sarcoma is a rarer subtype of Ewing sarcoma that exhibits some differences compared to classical Ewing sarcoma. It also arises in bones and soft tissues but may have a slightly different genetic profile. Atypical Ewing sarcoma lacks the typical EWSR1-FLI1 fusion gene and may have other fusion gene variants, such as EWSR1-ERG or EWSR1-ETV1. The clinical presentation and treatment approach for atypical Ewing sarcoma may differ from classical Ewing sarcoma.

It’s important to note that further research is ongoing to better understand the different subtypes and genetic variations within Ewing sarcoma. Healthcare professionals and researchers continue to investigate these variations to improve diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for patients with Ewing sarcoma.


The symptoms of Ewing sarcoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor and whether it has spread to other parts of the body. Here are some common symptoms associated with Ewing sarcoma:

1. Pain: Pain is often the first and most common symptom of Ewing sarcoma. It may start as a dull ache in the affected bone or soft tissue and gradually become more intense. The pain may worsen with activity or at night.

2. Swelling and tenderness: The affected area may appear swollen, and the surrounding tissues may feel tender to the touch. This can be accompanied by warmth or redness in the area.

3. Limited range of motion: If the tumor is located near a joint, it can restrict movement and lead to stiffness or difficulty in moving the affected limb or joint.

4. Fever and fatigue: Some individuals with Ewing sarcoma may experience fever, which can be accompanied by fatigue or general weakness. These symptoms may be indicative of an infection or systemic response to the tumor.

5. Weight loss: Unexplained weight loss may occur in some cases of Ewing sarcoma. This can be due to the body’s metabolic changes or a result of reduced appetite.

6. Fractures: Weakened bones affected by Ewing sarcoma can be more prone to fractures, even with minimal trauma or stress.


The diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma typically involves a combination of medical history evaluation, physical examination, imaging tests, and biopsy. Here is an overview of the diagnostic process for Ewing sarcoma:

1. Medical history and physical examination: The doctor will review your medical history and ask about any symptoms you may be experiencing. They will also perform a physical examination to assess the affected area, look for any signs of a tumor, and check for any related symptoms.

2. Imaging tests: Imaging tests are crucial in diagnosing Ewing sarcoma and determining the extent of the disease. Common imaging techniques used include:

– X-rays: X-rays can help identify bone abnormalities or tumors.

– Computed tomography (CT) scan: CT scans provide detailed cross-sectional images of the affected area, allowing for better visualization of the tumor and its extent.

– Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): MRI uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create detailed images of soft tissues, helping to evaluate the tumor’s size, location, and involvement of nearby structures.

– Bone scan: This scan involves injecting a small amount of radioactive material into the bloodstream to detect areas of increased bone activity that may indicate the presence of a tumor or metastasis.

3. Biopsy: A biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma. During a biopsy, a small sample of the tumor is obtained for laboratory analysis. This can be done using a needle biopsy under imaging guidance or through a surgical biopsy. The tissue sample is examined by a pathologist who specializes in analyzing cancer cells.


The treatment for Ewing sarcoma typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, involving a team of specialists including oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, and other healthcare professionals. The specific treatment plan will depend on factors such as the size and location of the tumor, whether it has spread to other parts of the body, the patient’s age, and overall health. Here are some common treatment options for Ewing sarcoma:

1. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is often used as the initial treatment for Ewing sarcoma. It involves the use of powerful medications to kill cancer cells or shrink the tumor before surgery or radiation therapy. Chemotherapy is usually administered in cycles, with scheduled periods of treatment followed by rest periods to allow the body to recover.

2. Surgery: Surgery may be performed to remove the tumor and surrounding affected tissue. The extent of surgery will depend on the size, location, and stage of the tumor. In some cases, limb-sparing surgery may be an option, where the tumor is removed while preserving the affected limb’s function. In other cases, amputation may be necessary.

3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to destroy cancer cells or shrink the tumor. It is often used in combination with surgery or chemotherapy. The decision to use radiation therapy depends on factors such as the tumor’s location and the extent of the disease.

4. Targeted therapy: In some cases, targeted therapy may be used to treat Ewing sarcoma. This involves the use of drugs that specifically target certain molecules or pathways involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells.

5. Stem cell transplant: In certain situations, a stem cell transplant may be recommended. This involves the infusion of healthy stem cells after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to replace damaged bone marrow.

Related Articles


Overview and FactsTypes and SymptomsDiagnosis & MedicationsOverview and Facts Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that affects the [...]


Overview and FactsTypes and SymptomsDiagnosis & MedicationsOverview and Facts Trichinosis, also known as trichinellosis, is a parasitic infection caused by [...]


Overview and FactsTypes and SymptomsDiagnosis & MedicationsOverview and Facts Trigeminal neuralgia is a neurological condition characterized by severe facial pain. [...]