Chromium (CR) exposure is hazardous because it has the potential to cause cancer. Among the most common industrial metals is chromium, and it is believed that a million employees worldwide are exposed to chromium compounds in various sectors, including leather tanning, stainless steel welding, chrome plating, and pigment manufacture. Furthermore, it’s a prominent pollutant at a variety of hazardous garbage sites across the globe.

Moreover, chromium affects the respiratory system, resulting in eye and skin damage. Spray painters and welders are usually exposed to chromium. Chromium (CR) exposure occurs mainly via inhalation, although it may also happen through ingestion. Dermal exposure might also occur, which means you could be exposed to chromium via your skin. Severe CR compound exposure is generally purposeful or accidental and is seldom environmental or occupational.


If a person has been exposed to acute and chronic levels of chromium, they may experience adverse health effects.

Acute poisoning is more likely to happen orally, but chronic poisoning is more likely to develop through skin contact or inhalation.

Acute Exposure

  • Acute multisystem organ problem
  • Hepatic damage
  • Circulatory collapse
  • Intravascular hemolysis
  • Kidney failure
  • Toxic nephritis
  • Hemorrhagic diathesis
  • Muscle cramps
  • Fever
  • Vertigo
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Epigastric pain
  • Corrosion and ulceration or intense gastrointestinal irritation

Chronic Exposure

Skin exposure to chromium dust regularly may result in the following:

  • Bronchitis
  • Rhinitis
  • Sinusitis
  • Lung cancer
  • Lesions (known as chrome ulcer holes or chrome holes)
  • Periodontitis
  • Gingivitis
  • Keratitis
  • Nasal ulcers and perforations
  • Mucous membrane and conjunctival irritation
  • Incapacitating eczematous dermatitis with edema


There will be indications of liver and kidney damage with chromium (CR) exposure. Spirometry might show a decrease in the FEV1:FVC ratio following acute irritating exposure or in employees with chromium-induced asthma. Patch testing may confirm skin allergies.

In determining Chromium (CR) exposure, the following tests must be performed:

  • Urinalysis
  • Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen
  • Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase or liver function tests, bilirubin or ALT
  • A complete blood count


Unfortunately, there is no recognized antidote for chromium (CR) exposure. Instead, physicians use symptomatic therapy to relieve pain and suffering. Your exposure will nearly entirely determine the time it takes you to recuperate.

In situations of low-dose chromium contact, the initial approach is to isolate the individual from additional exposure. The body will naturally dispose of excess chromium, which will swiftly halt the progression of symptoms like kidney damage and dermatitis.

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