Chapare hemorrhagic fever (CHHF) is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by an infection with the Chapare virus, which belongs to the arenavirus family. It may be spread by direct or indirect contact with infected rats or through their urine, saliva, or feces. It may also be transmitted via a person’s bodily fluids or during medical treatments that might aerosolize the contaminated person’s bodily fluids, such as CPR, intubations, and chest compressions.
This uncommon illness was found in Bolivia as a result of a 2003 epidemic, including one dead case in the Chapare department. In 2019, there were five confirmed instances of the second outbreak, three of which were deadly. There are still few known occurrences of Chapare, necessitating more investigation into its transmission and etiology.