A rare genetic disorder called androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) affects the development of genitals and reproductive organs of an individual.

Despite being born as a male, the body of a person with AIS is resistant to male hormones. And because of that, sexual development does not happen normally. The external appearance of the genitals appears to be that of a female or somewhere between male and female.


There are 2 types of AIS.

  • Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS)
  • Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS)

A person with a CAIS develops full resistance to male hormones such as testosterone. The genitals of an individual with CAIS are that of a female. However, they have no uterus, and they don’t menstruate or become fertile.

Testosterone has minimal effects on the sexual development of an individual who suffers from PAIS. The genitals of a person with PAIS appears to be somewhere between a male and a female.



Symptoms of AIS varies between its types.

An individual with CAIS will experience the following symptoms when they reach puberty.

  • Have no or little armpit or pubic hair
  • Develops female characteristics, like breasts
  • Failure to menstruate and become fertile

PAIS, on the other hand, can be detected during childhood. A person with PAIS has characteristics between males and females. Symptoms for persons with PAIS may vary depending on how they are raised.

  • Children raised as boys will be infertile.
  • PAIS children raised as girls will have no womb and won’t be able to get pregnant.


Other common types of leg ulcer include:

  • Arterial leg ulcers
  • Diabetic leg ulcers
  • Malignant leg ulcers
  • Traumatic leg ulcers
  • Vasculitic leg ulcers

Ulcers in the foot are usually caused by diabetes.



Itching, pain, and swelling in the affected leg are characteristic symptoms of a venous leg ulcer.

Discoloration, hardening of the skin around the ulcer, and presence of a foul-smelling discharge may also be present when you have a venous leg ulcer.

If you have a venous leg ulcer, you may exhibit the following conditions:

  • discoloration and darkening of the skin around the ulcer
  • swollen ankles
  • red, flaky, scaly and itchy skin on your legs
  • swollen and enlarged veins on your legs
  • hardened skin around the ulcer, which may make your leg feel hard
  • a heavy feeling in your legs
  • an unpleasant and foul-smelling discharge from the ulcer
  • aching or swelling in your legs


Signs of an infection

Opportunistic pathogens could cause secondary bacterial infections due to the ulcer. 

Symptoms of an infected leg ulcer may include:

  • a green or unpleasant discharge coming from the ulcer
  • fever
  • redness and swelling of the skin around the ulcer
  • worsening pain
  • an unpleasant smell coming from the ulcer


Most often physicians may diagnose AIS based on the person’s appearance. However, several examinations may be required to confirm the diagnosis. This may include the following:


Blood testing is often used to determine the exact diagnosis of a person. This type of test is needed to:

  • Determine the hormonal levels of the person
  • Check the sex chromosomes of the suspected AIS patient
  • Check if there’s a faulty gene


This type of test is used to determine if the person has a womb and ovaries.


A small sample of tissue may be taken to be analyzed to confirm if it’s testicles and not ovaries.


Treatments can start once a child stops growing or is done with puberty. The following treatments may be implemented.

  • Hormone therapy
  • Reconstructive surgery
  • Psychological therapy
  • Counseling

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