XDR TB (EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TB)

XDR TB (EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TB) is an uncommon form of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) that is resistant to fluoroquinolone, rifampin, isoniazid, and at least one of these three injectable second-line medications (i.e., kanamycin, amikacin, or capreomycin). The two most effective TB medications, isoniazid and rifampin, are at least partially ineffective against the bacterium that causes MDR TB. 

Both drug-susceptible and XDR TB (EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TB) spread similarly. TB bacteria are emitted into the air when a person with TB sneezes, coughs, screams, or sings. Depending on the circumstances, these bacteria can float in the air for a number of hours. People who breathe in air contaminated with these TB bacteria are at risk of contracting the disease.

TB is not transmitted by:

  • Sharing drinks or food
  • Shaking somebody’s hand
  • Kissing
  • Sharing toothbrushes
  • Touching toilet seats or bed sheets

SYMPTOMS

Feelings of sickness or tiredness, fever, weight loss, and night sweats are all common signs of XDR TB (EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TB). Chest pain and bloody coughing are additional signs of lung TB disease. The area of the infection defines the disease’s signs in various body areas.

DIAGNOSIS

Only a well-equipped laboratory is capable of diagnosing XDR TB. The symptoms of XDR-TB are the same as those of traditional TB: a cough with thick, cloudy mucus (or sputum), occasionally with blood, lasting more than two weeks; a fever, night sweats, chills, muscle weakness, tiredness, weight loss, and occasionally, shortness of breath and chest discomfort. These signs may not necessarily indicate that you have XDR TB.

However, it does require that you see a physician for a checkup. You should tell your doctor or nurse if at least some of these signs do not go away after taking your medicine for a few weeks when you are already receiving treatment for TB.

TREATMENT

Patients with XDR TB (EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TB) can be treated, but the likelihood of success with the currently available medications is substantially lower than it is for patients with typical TB or even MDR-TB. The likelihood of recovery relies on the degree of drug resistance, the intensity of the illness, and whether the patient’s immune system is affected.

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