Wilms’ tumor, commonly called nephroblastoma, is a kind of childhood kidney cancer. This form of kidney cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in the kidney. It most often affects children aged three to four, and it becomes significantly less prevalent after the age of five.

Wilms’ tumor is most often detected in one kidney. However, it may sometimes be discovered in both kidneys simultaneously.


Wilms’ tumor symptoms and signs vary greatly, and some children exhibit no visible signs at all. However, the majority of children with this condition exhibit one or more of the following symptoms and signs:

The following are the other symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Blood in the urine
  • Constipation
  • Appetite loss
  • Shortness of breath
  • High blood pressure
  • Vomiting or nausea


Your child’s doctor may suggest the following tests to diagnose Wilms’ tumor:

  • Imaging tests
  • Urine and blood tests
  • A physical exam


Wilms’ tumor is typically treated with radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. Depending on cancer’s stage, it may require different treatments. Because this form of cancer is uncommon, your child’s doctor may advise you to seek therapy at a children’s cancer center with expertise in treating it.

  • Radiation therapy. During the surgery, radiation treatment may be used following the procedure to eliminate any cancer cells that were not removed. Depending on where the disease has advanced, it may also be an option for managing cancer that has migrated to other parts of the body. Tiredness, diarrhea, nausea, and sunburn-like skin irritation are possible adverse effects.
  • Chemotherapy. Wilms’ tumor is often treated with a combination of medications administered via a vein that acts together to destroy cancer cells. Vomiting, hair loss, nausea, appetite loss, and an increased risk of infection are all common adverse effects.

Preoperative chemotherapy may reduce tumors and make them more manageable for surgeons to remove. It may also help in eliminating any cancer cells that may have remained in the body after surgery has been performed.

  • Surgery. Surgery works by removing the portion of both kidneys, the surrounding tissue and affected kidney, and the part of the damaged kidney.

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