SPIRONOLACTONE - Watsons Health

SPIRONOLACTONE

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Aldactone

GENERIC NAME(S): SPIRONOLACTONE

 

Description: Spironolactone is a potassium-sparing diuretic that prevents your body from absorbing too much salt and keeps your potassium at a normal level.  This drug blocks the aldosterone receptor, that increases amount of sodium and water to be excreted.

Pharmacokinetics:

Absorption: Well absorbed from the GI tract after oral admin with a bioavailability of 90%.

Distribution: About 90% bound to plasma proteins.

Metabolism: Extensively metabolised.

Excretion: Mainly excreted in the urine, some in the faeces, as metabolites.

Indications:

Spironolactone is used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure.

It is also used to treat swelling (edema) caused by certain conditions (such as heart failure, liver disease) by removing excess fluid and improving symptoms such as breathing problems.

This medication is also used to treat low potassium levels and conditions in which the body is making too much of a natural chemical (aldosterone).

OTHER USES:

This medication has also been used to treat excessive hair growth (hirsutism) in women with polycystic ovary disease.

Contraindication:

Should not be given to patients with anuria (inability to urinate), acute renal insufficiency, significant impairment of renal excretory function, hyperkalemia, and Addison’s disease.

How to use spironolactone:

Dosage: Take 20 to 200 mg/day of this medication by mouth, as directed by your doctor.

  • If stomach upset occurs, take it with food or milk. It is best to take your dose early in the day (before 6 p.m.) to prevent having to get up during the night to urinate.
  • Take this medication regularly in order to get the most benefit from it.

Inform your doctor if your condition worsens (e.g., if you notice an increase in your routine blood pressure readings).

Potassium supplementation: Potassium supplementation, either in the form of medication or as a diet rich in potassium, should not ordinarily be given in association with Spironolactone therapy. Excessive potassium intake may cause hyperkalemia in patients receiving Spironolactone.  Excessive potassium may be fatal to patient with severe heart failure.

Remember that your doctor has prescribed this medication because he or she has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Common side effects:

  • drowsiness,
  • dizziness,
  • lightheadedness,
  • stomach upset,
  • diarrhea,
  • nausea,
  • vomiting, or
  • headache

Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including:

  • increased thirst, change in the amount of urine, mental/mood changes, unusual fatigue/weakness, muscle spasms, menstrual period changes, breast pain, breast enlargement (gynecomastia) in men, sexual function problems, signs of infection (e.g., fever, persistent sore throat), severe stomach/abdominal pain, persistent nausea/vomiting, vomit that looks like coffee grounds, dark urine, yellowing of the eyes/skin, easy bruising/bleeding.

This medication may lead to high levels of potassium, especially in patients with kidney problems. If not treated, very high potassium levels can be fatal. Tell your doctor right away if you notice any of the following serious side effects: slow/irregular heartbeat, muscle weakness.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Precautions:

Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

This medication may increase your potassium levels. Before using potassium supplements or salt substitutes that contain potassium, consult your doctor or pharmacist. Limit foods high in potassium such as bananas, tomatoes, potatoes, and low-salt milk. Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more details, including recommendations.

This drug may make you dizzy or drowsy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely. Limit alcoholic beverages.

Older adults may be more sensitive to the side effects of this drug, especially the effects on potassium (see Side Effects section).

  • Allergy: Before taking spironolactone, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies.
  • Medical History: Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you had: kidney problems, liver problems, untreated mineral imbalance (such as high potassium, low sodium), decreased adrenal gland function (Addison’s disease).

Pregnancy Risk:  Category C- This medication should be used only when clearly needed during pregnancy. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

Breastfeeding: This medication passes into breast milk but is unlikely to harm a nursing infant. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Interactions:

  • Some products that may interact with this drug include: lithium, drugs that may increase the level of potassium in the blood (such as amiloride, cyclosporine, eplerenone, tacrolimus, triamterene, birth control pills containing drospirenone).
  • Check the labels on all your medicines (such as cough-and-cold products, diet aids, or NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, naproxen) because they may contain ingredients that could increase your blood pressure or worsen swelling (edema).

Overdose:

If overdose is suspected, contact a poison control center or emergency room immediately.

Notes

Do not share this medication with others.

Laboratory and/or medical tests (such as kidney/liver function, blood mineral levels such as potassium) should be performed periodically to monitor your progress or check for side effects. Consult your doctor for more details.

If you are taking this medication for high blood pressure, lifestyle changes such as stress reduction programs, exercise, and dietary changes may increase the effectiveness of this medicine. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about lifestyle changes that might benefit you.

Have your blood pressure checked regularly while taking this medication. Discuss with your doctor and learn how to monitor your own blood pressure. Inform your doctor of your blood pressure readings.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose and resume your usual dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Storage

Store at room temperature away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

Brands:

There are no brands containing this molecule.

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