Phosphate diabetes is a rare condition where the kidney tubules fail to reabsorb phosphate, resulting in the secretion of excess phosphate in the urine.
In Type 1 diabetes, pancreatic beta-cell destruction or a defect in beta-cell functioning results in the failure to free up insulin and ineffective glucose transport. Type 1 immune-mediated diabetes is caused by the cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. The rate of beta-cell destruction is commonly greater in children than in adults.
The idiopathic form of Type 1 diabetes has no recognized cause. Sufferers with this type do not have any evidence of autoimmunity and don’t produce insulin. In type 2 diabetes, beta cells secrete insulin, however, receptors are insulin-resistant and glucose transport is variable and ineffective.
The risk factors for phosphate Type 2 diabetes include:
- Lack of physical activity
- Medical history of gestational diabetes mellitus
- Black, Hispanic, Pacific Islander, Asian American, Native American race
- Strong family history of diabetes
- Age older than 45 years old
- High -density lipoprotein lower than 35 or triglyceride levels higher than 250
- Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)
Phosphate diabetes can bring about the following signs and symptoms:
- Low bone mineral density
- Decreased blood phosphate levels
- Shortness of breath
- Bone pain
Phosphate diabetes is diagnosed using these tests:
- LDL cholesterol levels
- Triglyceride levels
- Blood pressure monitoring
- Electrocardiogram (ECG)
- Thyroid tests
- Fasting blood sugar
- Urine Glucose
- Urine Ketone
- HbA1c assessments
- Microalbumin checks
- Kidney function tests
- Eye exams
Treatment involves normalizing blood glucose levels and reduces complications.
Insulin injections may be given.
Pancreas transplantation is experimental and requires chronic immunosuppression.
The weight loss plan should tackle diet as well as lifestyle changes to support good adherence and control. For the obese individual with type 2 diabetes, weight loss is recommended.
Medicines may include the following:
- Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors