Pemphigus Vulgaris is a rare autoimmune disease that affects the skin and mucous membranes, causing painful blistering. When you have an autoimmune disease, your immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues. This is the most prevalent form of pemphigus, a series of autoimmune illnesses. The location of the blisters distinguishes each type of pemphigus.

Pemphigus Vulgaris is a disease that affects the mucous membranes, which can be found in the mouth, throat, nose, eyes, genitals, and lungs. Blisters in the mouth and eventually on the skin are common symptoms of this disease. The vaginal membranes are sometimes affected by blisters. Pemphigus Vulgaris is a potentially dangerous condition. 

Treatment is necessary, and it usually entails suppressing the immune system with corticosteroids. If left untreated, the illness might lead to serious problems. Some of these issues have the potential to be lethal.

Before corticosteroids were introduced in the 1950s, the fatality rate from this condition was around 75%. With today’s treatments, this has vastly improved.


The blisters’ position is used to diagnose the various kinds of pemphigus. They are as follows:

  • Pemphigus vulgaris
  • Pemphigus foliaceus
  • Pemphigus vegetans
  • Paraneoplastic pemphigus


Pemphigus Vulgaris causes the following symptoms:

  • oozing, peeling or crusting at the blister area
  • painful or unpleasant blisters that begin in the skin or mouth areas
  • skin blisters along the skin’s surface that come and disappear


Your skin blisters will be examined physically by a dermatologist. They’ll use Nikolsky’s sign to determine skin problems and other symptoms of the conditions. When your skin is wiped sideways with a cotton swab or a finger, it shears off quickly, which is a favorable Nikolsky’s sign.

Your doctor may then do a blister biopsy, which entails removing a small amount of tissue for study and examining it under a microscope to confirm the diagnosis. The biopsy may be processed in the lab with chemicals that aid your doctor’s search for aberrant antibodies. This information can help your doctor figure out what kind of pemphigus you have.


Treatment aims to alleviate pain and symptoms while preventing complications such as infection. It entails the use of one or more medications and other techniques. This could include any of the following:

  • Wound management
  • Plasmapheresis
  • Intravenous (IV) feeding
  • Antibiotics, antivirals, and antifungals
  • Corticosteroids and immune-suppressing drugs

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