Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an uncommon blood disorder caused by genetic mutations. Your immune system will target and kill red blood cells in your body if you have it. Certain proteins that safeguard them are missing.

This condition can strike at any age. It’s not something you’re born with. Some people, though, may have minor issues, while others may have more serious problems. Nevertheless, even though the consequences might be life-threatening, medications can help you feel better and reduce some of the complications.


Dark or vibrant red blood in your urinary at night or during the the day is one of the symptoms of this illness.

Some factors that contribute to the disease’s symptoms include:

  • Few red blood cells
  • Broken red blood cells
  • Blood clots

You could have a lot of symptoms or only a few. Besides, you will be more influenced by the illness if you have more dysfunctional blood cells in your body.

Meanwhile, anemia and broken RBC can induce symptoms like:

  • Exhausted and weak
  • Headaches
  • Stomach pain
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Bruising easily
  • Yellowish or pale skin
  • Problems swallowing
  • Trouble breathing
  • Difficulty obtaining or maintaining an erection


Your doctor will ask about your health history, as well as any signs and symptoms you’re experiencing. They might ask about:

  • Do you have any blood in your urine?
  • What medications are you now taking?
  • Have you experienced any symptoms of blood clots?
  • Have you ever experienced stomach or digestive issues?
  • Have you had your blood tested for bone marrow disorder or aplastic anemia?

Moreover, you will be subjected to routine blood tests. Your doctor may test your iron levels or collect samples of your bone marrow. They’ll also use other tests to look for blood clot symptoms if you have them.


Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria treatments aim to reduce symptoms and prevent consequences. Your treatment will be based on the degree of your symptoms and condition.

If you simply have a few anemia signs, you may need:

  • Iron supplements
  • Folic acid
  • Ravulizumab
  • Eculizumab
  • Pegcetacoplan

Treatment options include:

  • Blood transfusions
  • Blood thinners
  • Bone marrow stem cell transplant

Doctors typically only provide a bone marrow transplant to young persons with acute PNH due to considerable health risks. Discuss the dangers and benefits with your doctor if you believe it will help you.

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