Ovulation denotes to the release of an egg during the menstrual cycle in women.
Part of the ovary known as the ovarian follicle releases an egg. The egg is called an ovum, oocyte, or female gamete. It’s only released out on reaching maturity.
After its release the egg travels down the fallopian tube, where it is encountered by a sperm and grows to be fertilized.
Ovulation and hormonal balance in the menstrual cycle are controlled by a part of the brain known as the hypothalamus. It sends signals, coaching the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
When ovulation happens, a woman is most fertile during this time, and is more likely to conceive.
An ovulation calendar is intended to forecast when a woman might be most fertile.
Several websites and apps exist in this way by asking questions like:
- When was the start of your last menstrual period?
- How long does your menstrual cycle usually last?
- How long is your luteal phase, or the time in between the day after ovulation to the peak of your cycle?
It is more beneficial for women to record or chart menstrual cycles for entry into the calendar. Monitoring the menstrual cycle may also be key for importance any irregularities.
Difficulties with the ovulation process can result in infertility or trouble conceiving. These disorders include the following:
Polycystic ovarian syndrome
A woman with polycystic ovarian syndrome has enlarged ovaries, and small, fluid-filled cysts on them. It might probably be a consequence of hormonal imbalance that can interrupt ovulation. It is the main cause of infertility in females.
This occurs when the secretion of FSH and LH hormones is disrupted. Irregular menstrual cycles and amenorrhea can result. Explanations for hypothalamic dysfunction include extreme physical or emotional stress and increased or low body weight.
Premature ovarian failure
This is when egg production stops early, because of a drop of estrogen levels. It can be a result of an autoimmune disorder, genetic irregularities, or environmental toxins. It mostly affects women before the age of 40 years.
Hyperprolactinemia, or excess prolactin
In specific situations, due to medicines or an aberration within the pituitary gland, which produces hormones, women can yield increased amounts of prolactin. This, in turn, can lead to a lessening in estrogen production. Excess prolactin is a reason for ovulatory dysfunction.
Ovulation may be brought about by fertility drugs. These medicines can normalize or prompt ovulation. Doctors may prescribe the following to treat anovulation, or the cessation of ovulation:
- Clomiphene citrate: This drug increases pituitary secretion of FSH and LH, stimulating ovarian follicles.
- Letrozole: This works by using progesterone to stimulate ovum or egg production.
- Human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG and FSH: These injectable drugs are referred to as gonadotropins and stimulate the ovary to produce a couple of eggs for ovulation.
- Human chorionic gonadotropin or hCG: This matures eggs and triggers their release during ovulation.
- Metformin: This medicine is used in females with PCOS to deal with insulin resistance and increases the chances of ovulation.
- Bromocriptine and Cabergoline: These drugs are utilized in hyperprolactinemia.