OMSK HEMORRHAGIC FEVER

Omsk hemorrhagic fever (OHF) is caused by the Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), a member of the Flaviviridae virus family. OHFV is mostly spread to rats by the bite of an infected tick. OHFV seems to be highly persistent in varied habitats; therefore, transmission may occur without any direct tick or rodent contact. Tick bites or contact with the blood, excrement, or urine of an infected or dead animal may cause infection.

Human exposure may also occur via contaminated water, in a laboratory environment, or through infected goat or sheep milk. Omsk hemorrhagic fever (OHF) is mostly found in Omsk, Novosibirsk, Kurgan, and Tyumen in western Siberia.

SYMPTOMS

The onset of the initial symptoms of Omsk hemorrhagic fever may occur between 3 and 8 days after exposure. This might consist of the following:

  • chills
  • fever
  • nausea
  • headache
  • severe muscle pain
  • vomiting
  • other gastrointestinal problems
  • bleeding problems
  • ache in the lower and upper limbs and extreme prostration
  • eruption on the soft palate
  • enlarged lymph nodes in the neck
  • a manifestation of blood in the eyes (conjunctival suffusion)
  • dehydration
  • hypotension

In uncommon instances, OHF may lead to hearing loss, hair loss, and behavioral or psychiatric issues. Some individuals may recover in 1–2 weeks, while others may not.

DIAGNOSIS

Omsk hemorrhagic fever may be detected by viral isolation from blood or through serologic testing using an immunosorbent serological assay. The OHF fatality rate ranges from 0.5 to 3 percent. There is no particular treatment for OHF at this time, however supportive counseling may assist.

TREATMENT

Although there is no particular treatment for OHF, supportive counseling is essential. Supportive care involves maintaining hydration and taking the standard precautions for individuals with bleeding problems.

OHF, albeit uncommon, may result in hearing loss, hair loss, and behavioral or psychiatric challenges linked with neurological diseases, and a long-term supportive case may be required.

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