NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES (NLV)

Norwalk-like viruses (NLV), also known as small, round-structured viruses (SRSV) or caliciviruses, typically spread via contaminated food or water and cause epidemics of gastroenteritis. These viruses are named for the strain that first caused an epidemic in Norwalk, Ohio. 

NLV is spread by contact with infected individuals or through the consumption of contaminated food and water. Anyone is susceptible to NLV infection, however adults and older kids are more likely to experience severe complications. Furthermore, since these viruses have various strains, individuals might get ill from them several times. The virus can be transmitted through feces and vomit. 

Epidemics have been associated with sick kitchen staff, contaminated seafood, and sewage-infected water. Generally, the virus is transmitted from person to person by direct touch; however, certain medical studies indicate that the virus may be transmitted through the air when vomiting.

SYMPTOMS

Among the signs of an Norwalk-like viruses (NLV) infection are the following:

  • vomiting
  • nausea
  • abdominal cramps
  • diarrhea
  • muscle aches
  • headache
  • fever and shivering

These symptoms typically occur 1-2 days after contact with the virus and persist for around 1-2 days in the majority of cases without causing any significant or long-term health problems. Consult a doctor if diarrhea is bloody and/or accompanied by a high temperature, if symptoms persist for more than 72 hours, or if you become dehydrated.

DIAGNOSIS

NLV is difficult to identify in a laboratory, but it may be detected by examining a person’s feces or vomit. Since only a few laboratories are capable of conducting this test, it is only used in exceptional circumstances. Typically, healthcare experts will first attempt to rule out other bacteria that might have caused the disease before basing their diagnosis on symptoms and duration.

TREATMENT

NLV infection has no particular therapy. NLV cannot be cured with antibiotics, and patients normally recover in 1-2 days without medical intervention. Since diarrhea and vomiting may cause dehydration, it is essential to consume plenty of fluids. If your symptoms persist, consult your physician.

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