Nipah Virus Infection (NIV Infection) is a zoonotic virus that may be transmitted from animals to humans. Fruit bats are the animal reservoir for NIV infection, which may infect pigs and humans. This infection is linked to encephalitis, which may cause moderate to severe disease and even death.

Moreover, Nipah Virus Infection (NIV Infection) may be avoided by avoiding contact with ill bats and pigs in virus-infected regions and not drinking raw date palm sap. In hospital settings, standard infection control methods may help prevent person-to-person transmission.


Nipah Virus Infection (NIV Infection) may cause moderate to severe sickness, including death and brain swelling (encephalitis). After this, a phase of brain swelling (encephalitis) may occur, with symptoms such as tiredness, mental confusion, and disorientation which may quickly develop into a coma within 24-48 hours.

Initially, symptoms may include one or more of the following:

  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Difficulty breathing

Severe symptoms may occur, including:

  • Seizures
  • Brain swelling or encephalitis
  • Confusion
  • Disorientation
  • Coma
  • Drowsiness

In 40-75% of instances, death may occur. Long-term adverse effects of Nipah virus infection have been reported in survivors, including recurrent convulsions and behavioral abnormalities.

Infections cause symptoms, and, in some cases, mortality months or years after exposure (known as dormant or latent illnesses) have also been reported.


Nipah Virus Infection (NIV Infection) may be diagnosed during or after sickness. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing may be performed in the laboratory. Because of the non-specific nature of the early symptoms, early discovery and diagnosis are crucial for increasing the chances of survival, preventing transmission, and managing outbreak response operations.

NIV should be explored for patients with symptoms associated with NIV infection who have recently traveled to places where Nipah is more prevalent.


There are no specific treatments for Nipah Virus Infection. However, immunotherapeutic treatments are being developed and tested. M102.4, one such antibody, has passed phase 1 clinical trials and is being used compassionately.

Remdesivir has been successful as post-exposure prophylaxis in nonhuman primates. Ribavirin was used to treat a limited number of patients during the original NIV outbreak, but its effectiveness in humans is unknown.

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