HEPATITIS B IMMUNOGLOBIN

COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Twinrix

GENERIC NAME(S): HEPATITIS B VIRUS VACCINE

 

Description: Hepatitis B immunoglobulins contain specific neutralising antibodies (mainly IgG) that provide passive immunisation for individuals exposed to the hepatitis B virus. It is used for post-exposure prophylaxis in persons who are not vaccinated, or whose prior vaccination regimen is incomplete or when the antibody level is <10 IU/ml. It may also be used in haemodialysis patients and receptors of certain blood products who are unable to develop adequate immune protection.
Duration: Postexposure prophylaxis: 3-6 mth.
Pharmacokinetics: 
Absorption: Slow absorption via IM inj.
Distribution: Volume of distribution: 7-15 L.
Excretion: Average half-life ranges from 17-25 days.

This combination vaccine is used to help prevent infection from the hepatitis A and B viruses. Hepatitis A/hepatitis B combination vaccine is made from whole, killed hepatitis A virus and a genetically engineered (man-made in the laboratory) piece of hepatitis B virus. It does not contain live virus, so you can not get hepatitis from the vaccine. This vaccine works by helping the body produce immunity (through antibody production) that will prevent you from getting infection from hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

 

The vaccine is recommended for people at an increased risk of getting these infections. Those at an increased risk include:

 

  • health care personnel
  • laboratory workers who handle blood and patient specimens
  • police
  • fire and emergency medical personnel who give first aid treatment
  • hemophiliacs
  • dialysis patients
  • people who live with or spend much time with people with persistent hepatitis B or active hepatitis A infections
  • people with multiple sex partners
  • men who have sex with men
  • sex workers
  • injection drug abusers
  • people traveling to high-risk areas

 

 

How to use hepatitis A & B virus vaccine intramuscular

Read the Vaccine Information Statement available from your health care professional before receiving the vaccine. If you have any questions, ask your health care professional.

 

This vaccine is usually given by injection into a muscle by a health care professional. Adults and children usually receive the injection in the upper arm, and infants receive it in the upper thigh.

 

A series of 3 injections is usually given over 6 months. Your doctor will give you a vaccination schedule, which must be followed closely for best effectiveness. If you have an illness with fever at the time a vaccination is scheduled, your doctor may choose to delay the injection until you are better.

 

Dosage is based on your age. Different brands of hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine are available for different ages and may be given differently.

 

For people who cannot get the vaccine before traveling or for whom the vaccine might not work, your doctor may also give an injection of immune globulin. Immune globulin contains antibodies against the viruses and will immediately help protect you from developing an infection. However, these antibodies last only a few months. For proper protection, it is important to carefully follow your vaccination schedule.

Tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly if any of these effects persist or worsen:

 

  • Pain/redness/swelling at the injection site
  • Fever
  • Tiredness
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • diarrhea may occur

 

 

Infrequently, temporary symptoms such as:

 

  • fainting/dizziness/lightheadedness
  • vision changes
  • numbness/tingling
  • seizure-like movements

 

have happened after vaccine injections. Tell your health care provider right away if you have any of these symptoms soon after receiving an injection. Sitting or lying down may relieve symptoms.

 

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including:

 

 

  • rash
  • itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat)
  • severe dizziness
  • trouble breathing

 

 

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

Before getting hepatitis B, tell your health care professional if you are allergic to it; or to other vaccines; or if you have any other allergies.

 

Before using this vaccine, tell your health care professional your medical history, especially of: bleeding problems (such as hemophilia, low platelets, anticoagulant treatment), current illness with fever.

 

This vaccine may not respond as well to hemodialysis patients, so they will need to have hepatitis A or B antibody levels checked yearly if you are a. If antibodies drop too low over time, they may be given another dose of vaccine (often called a booster shot).

 

If you have decreased immune function from other medications (see also Drug Interactions) or other illness (such as HIV, leukemia, lymphoma, other cancer), your body may not make enough antibodies to protect you from hepatitis A or hepatitis B infection. Antibody levels may be checked after the vaccine series.

 

The elderly may not make as many antibodies to the vaccine. Talk to your doctor for more details.

 

During pregnancy, this vaccine should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

 

It is unknown if this vaccine passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

 

Interactions

 

Some products that may interact with this vaccine include:

 

  • chemotherapy
  • corticosteroids (such as prednisone, dexamethasone)
  • drugs that weaken the immune system (such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, mycophenolate)

 

 

Other vaccines may be given at the same time as hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine, but should be given with separate syringes and at different injection sites.

 

Notes

 

As with any vaccine, this vaccine may not fully protect everyone who receives it.

 

Laboratory and/or medical tests (such as hepatitis A or B antibody levels) may be performed periodically for some patients at risk of a poor response to the vaccine. Consult your doctor for more details.

 

Keep vaccine records for yourself and all of your children, and after your children are grown provide their records to them and their doctors. This will prevent unnecessary re-vaccinations.

 

Missed Dose

It is important to receive each vaccination as scheduled. Be sure to ask when each dose should be received and make a note on a calendar to help you remember.

 

Storage

Store in the refrigerator. Do not freeze. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

 

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

Available Brands

Hepabig [ Green Cross Corp ]

 

Also marketed as

Bayhep B (SD Viral Inactivated) [ Bayer ]

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