Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, also known as CPR, is a technique that can save a lot of lives and is useful in many medical emergencies such as heart attacks or near drowning. It can be used to the save the lives of those whose breathing or heartbeat has stopped.

Before starting CPR, check:

  • Is the environment safe for you and for the person?
  • If the person is unconscious, tap or shake his or her shoulder and ask loudly, “Hey, are you OK?”
  • If the person doesn’t respond and if there are two people are available, one of them should call the emergency hotline.

High-Frequency Chest Compression. This is an important CPR method that helps improve cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Open-Chest CPR. This is a method in which the heart can be accessed through a thoracotomy. Compressions are done using the thumb and fingers, as well as with the palm and fingers against the breastbone or sternum.

Interposed Abdominal Compression. This is a 3-rescuer technique which involves an abdominal compressor, a chest compressor and a rescuer that provides ventilation.

Infant CPR          

Check brachial pulse. Examine the middle of the chest. Place first two fingers, with the third finger slightly bent. Give 30 chest compressions for four cycles. Give two breaths. Continue this process until victim is responsive. Reassess. If alone, call 911 first.

Adult CPR: no breathing, no pulse

Go to the middle of the chest. Cross the fingers, with one hand on top of the other. Wiggle the chest gently. With the heel of the palm, perform 30 chest compressions for 4 cycles. Give two breaths. Continue this process until the victim response.


Turn the victim to the side. Let them vomit. Turn the victim back. Use the fingers to sweep anything from the mouth.

Unconscious Choking Infant

Try to wake baby up. Start by giving rescue breaths. Give a break for yourself only for inhaling. Then, give 30 compressions. Check for breaths. Continue this until the victim becomes responsive. Use the pinky finger to remove the object from the infant’s mouth.


If a victim drowns, perform CPR as usual. Roll the victim over to let the water out. Open the mouth to make sure the water does not go back and into the lungs. If the water goes into the lungs, he or she will die of asphyxiation.

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