COMPARTMENT SYNDROME - Overview, Facts, Types, Symptoms


Compartment syndrome happens when an inordinate pressing factor develops inside an encased muscle space in the human body. Compartment syndrome happens because of swelling and bleeding after wounds.

It can grow from within the injury, because of pressure from edema and bleeding. The arms, legs, and abdomen are the most susceptible to the development of compartment syndrome.


  • Acute. This is the most well-known type of compartment disorder. A broken arm or leg is one of the main causes of acute compartment syndrome. This grows quickly over hours or days.
  • Chronic. It evolves over days or weeks. It may be caused by strong or normal exercise and it is also known as exertional compartment syndrome. The affected areas are the thigh, leg, or buttocks.
  • Abdominal. It generally evolves after a medical surgery, serious injury, or during a crucial disease. As the force in the abdominal compartment arises, the bloodstream to and from the abdominal organs is decreased. Some organs like kidneys and liver might be harmed or permanently impaired. 


Acute symptoms:

  • Constant deep cramp in a leg or arm.
  • Pain that appears to be more prominent than anticipated for the seriousness of the injury. 
  • A tingling sensation, numbness, or electricity-like pain in the limb.
  • Wounding, tightness, or swelling.

Chronic symptoms:

  •  Worsening aching in the affected muscle within a half-hour from the start of exercise

Abdominal symptoms:

  • Low blood pressure
  • Urine that stops
  • Distended abdomen
  • Wincing when the abdomen is squeezed


A physician may assume syndrome according to the type of injury, an individual’s illustration of signs, and a physical check-up. 

Imaging tests and laboratories assist the diagnosis of this. However, no single test or direct pressure estimation can make the abdominal compartment syndrome diagnosis.


Treatment for this syndrome is centered on decreasing the uncertain pressure in the body’s compartment. It is necessary to remove casts or splints that constrict the injured portion of the body. 

Treatment for acute:

  • It needs an instant operation to lessen the compartment pressure.

Treatment for chronic:

  • It can be treated by preventing the physical activities that caused it.

Treatment for abdominal:

  • Life Support measure
  • Medication to sustain blood pressure
  • Kidney replacement treatment
  • Operations that will open the abdomen to lessen the compartment syndrome pressures are required.

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