Bartonella Quintana infection can be contracted through the bite of a human body louse. Body lice are distributed through close physical contact or by recurrently wearing or sleeping in the same bedding and clothes. In regions with a high population density and poor hygiene, Bartonella Quintana infection is most frequently associated with body louse outbreaks.
People who are homeless are more likely to become infected with B. Quintana due to the limited availability of restrooms and laundry amenities. Bartonella Quintana infection happens worldwide. Because of the high number of cases among soldiers living in crowded trenches in filthy conditions during World War I, infection was termed “trench fever.”